January 12, 2021

An Introduction to Databases

A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques. The database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer the database. The sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a “database system”. Often the term “database” is also used to loosely refer to any […]
January 12, 2021

Single Sign On

SINGLE SIGN ON (SSO) Single sign-on (SSO) is a high level concept that permits a user to use one set of login credentials (e.g., username and password) to access multiple applications. The service authenticates the end user for all the applications the user has been given rights to and eliminates further prompts when the user switches applications during the same session. On the back end, SSO is helpful for logging user activities as well as monitoring user accounts. Thus, SSO is an authentication/authorization flow through which a user can log into multiple services using the same credentials. A single sign-on solution […]
January 11, 2021

Installation Of Nginx on Ubuntu 20

This is evident from the post that Nginx is one of the most popular and growing web servers across the globe. Its faster than apache. Let us see how we can install Nginx on Ubuntu, Centos and other platforms. Installation Using Package Manager mkdir nginxcd nginxwget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.19.5.tar.gztar -zxvf nginx-1.19.5.tar.gzcd nginx-1.19.5./configuresudo apt-get install build-essentialsudo apt-get install libpcre3 libpcre3-dev zlib1g zlib1g-dev libssl-dev     nginx path prefix: “/usr/local/nginx”nginx binary file: “/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx”nginx modules path: “/usr/local/nginx/modules”nginx configuration prefix: “/usr/local/nginx/conf”nginx configuration file: “/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf”nginx pid file: “/usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid”nginx error log file: “/usr/local/nginx/logs/error.log”nginx http access log file: “/usr/local/nginx/logs/access.log”nginx http client request body temporary files: “client_body_temp”nginx http proxy temporary files: […]
January 10, 2021


Json stands for JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is an open-standard file format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs and array data types and is language independent. It is derived from javascript. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. JSON filenames use the extension .json. JSON was created because there was a need for light weight data interchange format. There are other formats also like XML,YAML, HOCON but there was a need for less verbose light weight data interchange format. JSON fulfills all these requirements. Douglas Crockford originally specified the JSON format in the […]
January 9, 2021

How to Use Sessions Correctly for Persistent Login?

Charles Miller’s article, “Persistent Login Cookie Best Practice,”[1] describes a relatively secure approach to implementing the familiar “Remember Me” option for web sites. In this article, I propose an improvement that retains all the benefits of that approach but also makes it possible to detect when a persistent login cookie has been stolen and used by an attacker. Review: To summarize Miller’s design: When the user successfully logs in with Remember Me checked, a login cookie is issued in addition to the standard session management cookie.[2] The login cookie contains the user’s username and a random number (the “token” from here […]
January 7, 2021

How to add custom folders to one drive?

DATA is the life line of future ! Preserve it. Data is now more important than before. Be it personal data or professional data. We must find a way to back up our important data on the cloud so that we can access it whenever we have a need for it. But how can we do it securely? There are multiple options like Microsoft one drive, Google Drive, Dropbox, etc. OneDrive is free online storage that comes included with Windows 10 and is synced with your Microsoft account. Once your files are backed up on OneDrive, and you’ll be able to […]
January 6, 2021

Why Nginx is better than Apache?

Apache and Nginx are the two most common open source web servers in the world. Together, they are responsible for serving over 50% of traffic on the internet. Both solutions are capable of handling diverse workloads and working with other software to provide a complete web stack. While Apache and Nginx share many qualities, they should not be thought of as entirely interchangeable. Each excels in its own way and it is important to understand the situations where you may need to reevaluate your web server of choice. Both web servers, in their latest versions, can compete with each other in […]
January 5, 2021

Securing WordPress Admin Directory with HTTP Authentication

WordPress is one of the most popular open-source blog CMS and thus is more prone to hack attacks. One of the most important and first step in protecting any WordPress installation is by protecting its wp-admin folder. Before protecting the wp-admin directory it has to be ensured that your admin password is strong enough. Thus, always ensure that your admin password is very safe and secure and keep changing it at regular intervals of time. Now let’s dive into securing our wp-admin directory. Protect wp-admin directory On Apache Disclaimer: This method works only on Apache. Adding an extra layer of server […]
January 4, 2021

How To Use Web Cookies Securely?

Cookies are one of the most important elements in web applications, but unfortunately, many developers use it very loosely thus increasing the security risks to the website. I will teach here the importance of HTTP Cookies and best practices for using it securely in web applications. Lets gets started 🙂 What is a Cookie? Cookies are text files with small pieces of data that is used to identify your computer as you use a computer network. Specific cookies known as HTTP cookies are used to identify specific users and improve your web browsing experience. Cookies are simple mechanisms to make HTTP […]